The World War 1which is also familiar with the names of First World War or the Great War as for the first time in history such genocide, bloodshed, epidemic, movement of 70 million military personnel happened of which one million found missing at the end of the war. It questioned that weapons were made for defense or massacre. For the first time in history poison gas and machine gun were used in battle. WW1 ended with the treaty of Versailles on November 11, 1918, with an estimate of 10 million military deaths reported. It shattered empires. It changed irreversibly the map of the world particularly Europe as it resulted in the disintegration of kingdoms and empires into smaller nation states which got new nationality, territory, language, and history. The aftermaths of WW1 were not ended with the treaty of Versailles; as only two decades after WW1, another great war started named as WORLD WAR II (WWII) which was even more devastating than WW1. The League of Nations emerged as a result of WW1 but, it failed to complete its goals.
The great World War 1 started when Austria declared war on Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Franz, who was a nephew of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his pregnant wife Sophia. This became the ultimate reason for the start of the war. On July 28, Austria declared war but Britain called for international meditation on July 29. As Austria raised issue violently and issued an ultimatum to Serbia but, even as a result of this issue, Serbia did not succeed to satisfy Austria.
ON JULY 30, 1914 Austria bombarded on the Serbian capital-‘Belgrade’, Austria-Hungary was backed by Germany. Russia announced mobilization on the eve of the 30th July. Germany warned him to stop but, Russia did not stop as a result Austria-Hungary and Germany also announced mobilization. There were two groups of countries, alliances; first is Austria-Hungary and Germany and their allies which are commonly known by the name of THE TRIPPLE ALLIANCE and 2nd are Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain and Belgium THE TRIPPLE ENTENTE, and Great War started.
Germany started the
war on two fronts, 1st she crossed borders of Belgium
and invaded in France in the west and secondly she confronted Russia in the
East. In their way to cross Belgium and invading France, the Germans did heavy
destruction including the massacre of civilians. When Germany had advanced deep
into France, they had to roll back as forces of France and Great Britain
confronted them heavily. Germany was expecting quick victory in France but this
resulted in a prolonged World War 1 which resulted in
massacre, bloodshed and around one million soldiers were wounded, killed
or found missing.
On 12th August,
France and Great Britain declared war against Austria Hungary. To seize
German possessions in the Pacific and China, Japan sided with the Entente.
Another turn in the event of war happened when in November 1914, the Ottoman
Empire entered the war siding the
alliances. It opened the fronts in the Mesopotamia, Caucasus, and the Sinai
Peninsula. This paved the way the war to spread all over the globe. The war was
mainly divided between CENTRAL POWERS (Austria Hungary, Germany, and their
allies) and allied powers (Great Britain, France, and their allies). The number
of countries that took part in war kept on increasing and the extent of damages
of war kept on increasing. Serbia was defeated in 1915; however, all great
powers remained involved in the war until 1918. On October 30 Ottoman Empire
was torn into pieces.
Summary of causes of WW1:
– The intention of Austro-Hungary to take revenge from Serbia.
– Germany was hungry for imperialism; therefore, in an aim to enhance international influence and power.
– This resulted in persuasion to build more and more arm-mentation and discovery of new warships.
– The Dreadnought; a desire of French to take revenge from Germany for her disastrous defeat in 1871.
– Russian aggression to restore national prestige after about a decade of civil strife.
– USA intended to sell her warships and concerned for the balance of power considerations.
Aftermath of World War 1:
The aftermath of World War 1 is devastating; economic,
social, and political change across all Europe and Asia happened.
It resulted in the collapse of empires and kingdoms. As a result of WW1, four empires collapsed: the Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungary, Russia, and Germany.
Germany was held responsible for the war and had to pay 31.4 billion dollars in reparation; moreover, Germany was sanctioned.
The German army was restricted to only 100,000 men and
naval force up to 6 battleships only. Before the war, the army personnel of
Germany were numbered up to 761,000.
The kingdom of Germany was torn. Germany had to lose a territory of 27,000
square miles that comprised up to 13% of European countries.