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Energy Crisis

Energy Crisis

Energy Crisis

Energy is spirit of economic prosperity of a country. Energy acts as life line to socioeconomic, agricultural, and industrial, hospitals, farms, mills, factories and other services need electricity. Not even a single department could think of without proper energy supply. Energy crisis can be explained as inflation in energy cost as well as shortage of energy supply. In Pakistan, however, shortage of energy supply is exaggerating due to mismanagement. The utmost importance of energy supply in 21st century is undeniable. The population of our country is increasing exponentially but production of energy is not directly proportional to population demands. As a result our low GDP is not up to the mark and we are not a developed state. The infrastructure of power generating plants in Pakistan is not well enough. Moreover, management is so poor. Despite rising energy demand,  need to strengthen economy and to fulfill booming demands of rising population; Pakistan administrative has not done serious efforts to manage old power plants effectively and to install new power plants according to demand. Their mismanagement results in power shortfall. In addition to electricity shortfall; transmission losses caused by outdated infrastructure, power theft, rapidly increasing power demands are worsening situation badly and result in acute electricity shortfall. Consequently, load-shedding disturb all services of a country. Apart from proper management; corruption and insufficient funds are important key players of energy crisis in country. With the advancement of technology, we have nuclear power, hydroelectric power and wind power sectors. These are cheap ways to produce electricity as compared with old methods of thermal and coal power generation. Proper management and use of advance resources may result in tremendous energy production. With the introduction of certain strategies and advanced management the challenges power shortfall are faced by energy sector of Pakistan can be sorted out.    

Developed countries have met energy crisis by energy production with advance technology: nuclear power supply, solar energy, wind energy and hydropower plants. But Pakistan mainly focus on oil and coal power generation with is not only costly but also non-renewable as well as causes environmental pollution. Today, solar energy is gaining popularity world over. Solar energy can be used in our homes, factories, tube-wells, and residences. Advancement should be made in this technology of energy production. Apart from being cheap in long run, it is pollution free. Therefore, progress should be made in this direction.

Solar power involves such cells to convert daylight into electricity. Pakistan has potential of producing over 100,000 MW electricity from solar energy. Building of solar energy plants is currently underway in geographic areas of Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan. However, non-public vendors are commerce panels / solar water heaters and others are available for consumption within the market. Alternative energy Development Board (AEDB) is functioning for managing 20,000 solar water heaters in area of GilgitBaltistan. Mobile corporations are asked by the govt. to shift offer of energy to their transmission towers from oil to solar or alternative energy panels as a solution to energy crisis.

Wind power utilizes the energy of the wind to run the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets that creates electricity. The West Pakistan has potentials of wind energy starting from ten thousand MW to 50000 MW, nevertheless power generation via wind is in starting phase in  Pakistan and presently 06 MW has been put in in initial phase in Jhampir by a Turkish company and fifty MW are about to be installed shortly. A lot of alternative energy plants are going to be in-built in Gharo, Jhampir, Keti Bandar and Bin Qasim Karachi.

Production of energy by Biomass involves utilizing garbage or alternative renewable resources like corn, sugarcane or alternative vegetation to produce electricity. Once garbage decomposes, methane gas is produced and captured in pipes which are further burned to provide electricity. Vegetation and wood is burned on to generate power, like fossil fuels, or processed to generate alcohols. Brazil has one amongst the biggest renewable energy programs from biomass/biodiesel within the world, after USA. Alternative energy Development Board (AEDB) of Islamic Republic of Pakistan has planned to come up with ten mega watt of electricity from municipal waste in Karachi followed by similar energy producing projects in twenty cities of country.

Energy production with nuclear energy is beneficial. Nuclear power stations generate energy by the nuclear fission reaction of uranium inside a nuclear reactor.  But to set up nuclear power plants in a developing country is not easy and cheap. It is expensive project. Because nuclear reactors are so costly. In Western countries, major source of energy production is nuclear energy. France met 80% of its energy demands with nuclear reactors. To set up nuclear power plants in developing countries is not easy. To set Chasma 1 and Chasma 2 nuclear power plants in Pakistan of 300 MV each, China has helped Pakistan. More such nuclear power projects are under consideration and some are under construction. Currently, Pakistan has a small nuclear power program of only 425 MW capacities, but many plans and programs are under consideration to increase this capacity gradually. Since Pakistan is not a member of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Therefore, Pakistan is not a member of trade in nuclear plant material. Due to this issue, to develop nuclear energy plants is not easy for Pakistan.

In Pakistan, the cause of energy crisis is due to following reasons: increasing trend of luxurious lifestyle, increasing agricultural and industrial growth demand, exponentially increasing population and increasing trend of private transportation. Furthermore, lack of integrated and proactive planning further aggravates this situation. Currently, Pakistan has a need of 20000MW, but production of energy is only 11500MW. There is a wide gap between energy production and energy required due to lack of proactive and integrated planning.

Energy producing sources of Pakistan are quite expensive. Pakistan mostly relies on non-renewable sources of energy. Moreover, Pakistan imports oil for energy production. With the passage of time prices of oil and petroleum are increasing day by day which causes inflation. Pakistan is rich in certain energy resources. In Thar, the largest sources of coal are present. Approximately, coal resources in Thar reach approximately up to 175 billion tons which are far greater than oil reserve resources of Saudi Arabia and Iran etc.

Energy production can be done with hydropower plants. Water is one of the cheapest sources of energy production. Also, pollution risk is not associated with this. Kala Bagh dam if built, it will definitely overcome energy demand. Estimated, Pakistan has a potential to generate 41000 to 45000MV energy by hydropower plants. Currently, Pakistan is generating only 6555MV energy by hydropower which is potential renewable resource. In Pakistan, energy generation can be increased enormously by constructing Kalabagh dam having potential of 3600MV, Basha dam having potential of 4500MV, Bunji power plant having potential of 5400MV and Dasu hydropower plant of 3800MV potential. Likewise, a number of small and medium hydro power plants can be installed on canals and rivers to overcome energy crisis.

Baluchistan has a capability to provide a big renewable energy resource because it has coastal belt along Arabian Sea which is 770-KM which links Gwadar and Lasbela. Baluchistan can also provide a big amount of micohydel power energy, biogas energy, and solar energy as well as wind power energy. Only Baluchistan is a big source of energy. The longest coastline of Pakistan is of Baluchistan province which is 70% of total 1045km coast-line of Pakistan. Such longest coastline can be big source of tidal energy generation if exploited. Apart from being a big source of energy it can provide a source of tourism, fisheries and seaports. Surely, to meet rural needs of electricity a large number of off-grid based as well as grid based can be constructed on it. Klamath and sonmiani beach can provide enormous tidal energy. A 10MV power plant was constructed at Sonmiani Bay in 2013 when private companies were issued a license to build tidal power stations. The method of power generation from tidal energy is very environment friendly and cost effective. As moon gravity is used to extract tidal power by locating a tidal turbine in a tidal current. Although coastal tides are a big source of free, renewable, clean and sustainable energy but there is no implementation on it in Pakistan because all power generating projects becomes a victim of unsustainable and dirty politics as well as due to involvement and coas created by external pressure.

All energy projects under CPEC project are thermal power projects. Energy production by thermal power projects is costly. Although, it is old way of energy production and we have new technology. We are suffering from energy crisis because we keep focusing on older ways of energy production. Pakistan keeps focusing on older ways of energy which are oil, gas and coal. Unfortunately, developing countries are not introducing advanced technology of energy production. Energy production by oil, gas and coal is not only costly but it is also a big source of pollution. Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park is another excellent part of ‘New Silk Road’ in CPEC; which has a capability to generate 100 MW electricity.

India has made remarkable achievement in establishing renewable energy resources in last few years. India has established a full-fledged Ministry of Renewable Energy. By an estimate of June, 2013 India generates 225,793MW energy mix with different resources. Of this, 27,542MW is being generated by new and renewable energy resources. By 2017, India targeted to install power projects of capacity 55,000MW of cumulative installed capacity.

Internationally, there is an emerging trend of power generation from renewable energy sources. Theoretically, It is estimated that worldwide oceans of are a source of 32000GW energy, which is renewable. Globally, it is estimated that both tidal power and wave power energy is greater than that of solar and wind energy. International community seems active in power generation. South Korea built world’s largest tidal power station. This power plant has a capacity of 260MW. This power project cost $250. 2011 was the year of completion of this power project. The availability rate of this power plant is amazing which is 98%. It is located at Silawa Lake in South Korea.

Consequences of Energy Crisis

Notwithstanding, electrical energy is lifeline. In 21st century the importance and need of energy is even exaggerated. Energy crisis directly hamper all life activities, businesses, agriculture, industry and hospitals. Ultimately, energy crisis lower GDP. MOST IMPORTANTLY, energy is pivotal in running all other sources of economy production. Shortfall of electricity results in low water supply to agriculture sector. This results in low production. Pakistan is an agricultural state. Therefore, low agricultural production directly results in low GDP. All inflations are result of energy crisis. Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is declining from its capacity due to energy shortfall. Energy is pivotal in running all machinery of agriculture including tube wells and other machinery. Moreover, the production of pesticides and fertilizers is also possible by energy supply. High energy will ultimately result in high energy production.

In Pakistan all industrial sectors depend upon electrical energy. Solar energy is not common. Shortfall of energy supply results in halting industrial growth. More energy results in more industrial unit’s establishment which results in more production and more employment. Hence GDP increases. In Pakistan, Due to dire energy crisis industrial units are not finding good opportunities. Energy shortfall results in unemployment because there is closure of industries in Pakistan.

Schools, hospitals and other centers of social activities greatly effect with energy shortfall. In homes, due to severe shortfall of energy in intense seasons disturb all life activities of public especially lower and middle class effects.
Increasing unemployment and lower agricultural productivity ultimately result in poverty. Pakistan is suffering from menace of poverty. According to an estimate in Pakistan about 40% people are living a life beyond poverty line.

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